What is Inrush Current?
Inrush current is the instantaneous high đầu vào current drawn by a power supply or electrical equipment at turn-on. This arises due to the high initial currents required lớn charge the capacitors and inductors or transformers.Quý Khách vẫn xem: Inrush current là gì
The inrush current is also known as the switch–on surge, or the đầu vào surge current.
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At turn-on, the discharged capacitors in power supplies offer low impedance that allows high currents to flow into lớn the circuit as they charge from zero to lớn their maximum values. These currents can be as high as trăng tròn times the steady state currents. Even though it only lasts for about 10ms it takes between 30 and 40 cycles for the current to lớn stabilize khổng lồ the normal operating value. If not limited, the high currents can damage the equipment in addition lớn producing voltage dips in the supply line and causing malfunctioning of other equipment powered from the same supply.
Inrush current specifications
High inrush currents indicate more áp lực on the rectifier components & hence lower reliability. The inrush current is specified in terms of:Average during a half cycle or peak: – where peak is about 40% larger than the averageVoltage range – 120V or 240VOperating temperature range in which the limiting technique is effective
Current wavesize when the device is powered up – Image Credit
Limiting inrush currents
The two commonly used protection methods are, the passive sầu, where a resistive current limiting device is connected in series with the supply, and the active which uses an electronic circuit consisting of resistors, a switching device & a control circuit.Resistor in Series
For small wattage supplies, the resistor is connected in series with the power input đầu vào line. However, the method is not suitable in larger power supplies due to inefficiency caused by the high power dissipation and losses in the series resistor.
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Parallel electronic switch
Using an electronic switch or relay in parallel with the thermistors or resistor. The currently limiting device offers high resistance at startup after which the switch is turned on lớn short circuit the device. The method ensures that thermistor is able lớn cool down to lớn its initial resistance và be ready khổng lồ protect against a subsequent surge in case of a power failure and resumption, or when one switches off an equipment và then turns it one immediately.
Active sầu circuits
An active sầu circuit comprises of resistors, transistors, triacs or thyristors và a control circuit to drive the switching device. These are suitable for applications requiring hot restart capabilities.
Factors considered when designing for inrush current limiting.Load capacitance valueSteady currentAmbient temperatureSupply voltageRequired current reduction of the inrush current