Definitions of Digestive sầu Terms

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AbdomenArea between the chest & the hips that contains the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gall bladder, pancreas, and spleen.AbsorptionThe process by which nutrients move sầu from the intestines, mostly inlớn the bloodstream, lớn nourish the body toàn thân.Adaptive sầu responseA helpful, protective response.AerophagiaIngestion of air.Afferent nervesNerve fibers (usually sensory) that carry impulses from an organ or tissue toward the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system), or the information processing centers of the enteric nervous system, which is located within the walls of the digestive sầu tract.Afferent pathwaysNerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part (e.g., the gut or intestines) toward a nerve center (e.g., the central nervous system).AganglionosisAbsence of nerve sầu cells.AlgorithmA step-by-step protocol for management of a health care problem.AllodyniaPain due khổng lồ stimuli that vì chưng not normally provoke pain.AllostasisThe ability of the organism to achieve sầu stability through adaptation or change. This process, which is critical to lớn our survival, involves the autonomic nervous system, the HPA axis, & the cardiovascular, metabolic, & immune systems which act to lớn protect the body by responding lớn internal and external stimuli. Paradoxically, these same systems, when activated by găng tay, can protect và restore as well as damage the toàn thân.Ambulatory careHealth services provided in a doctor’s office, or on an outpatient basis.Amino AcidsA group of đôi mươi different kinds of small molecules that links together in long chains khổng lồ khung proteins. Often referred khổng lồ as the “building blocks” of proteins.Anal canalThe lowermost portion of the large intestine.Anal fissureCrachồng in the skin in or adjacent lớn the anal canal.Anal incontinenceAny leakage of liquid or solid stool or excessive sầu leakage of gas.AnalgesicPain relieving.Anastomosis, intestinalReattachment of two portions of bowel.AnismusA condition marked by the failure of pelvic floor muscles to relax, or a paradoxical contraction of the pelvic floor muscles, with defecation. Also referred khổng lồ as pelvic floor dyssynergia.AnorexiaLoss of appetite.AntigenA substance or molecule recognized by the immune system, such as bacteria or a virut.AntinociceptionIncreased tolerance lớn pain.AntispasmodicsDrugs that inhibit smooth muscle contraction in the gastrointestinal tract.Anorectal manometryA chạy thử that can be used to measure resting và squeezing anal sphincter pressures, rectal sensation and compliance, and sphincter response.AnusThe opening of the rectum.AutonomicInvoluntary.Autonomic nervous systemThe part of the nervous system that controls involuntary actions of internal organs such as the bowel.

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BacteriaVery small organisms (microbes) that are normally in the gut (intestines). There are over 500 different kinds known khổng lồ live sầu in the gut; most (up khổng lồ several billion) bacteria are in the large intestine (colon). “Normal” bacteria have important functions in life and health. Bacteria that can cause infection are called “pathogens.” Normal bacteria protect against pathogens.BariumA metallic, chemical, chalky, liquid used lớn coat the inside of organs so that they will show up on an x-ray.Basic scienceThe fundamental approach lớn understanding how systems work. Basic retìm kiếm takes place in the laboratory & often involves the study of molecules & cells.BileSecretions of the liver that aid in digestion and absorption of nutrients in the intestinal tract.Bifidobacterium infantis 35624A type of bacteria that, in the right amount, may have sầu a beneficial effect (probiotic), and help lessen some bowel symptoms.Biliary tractGall bladder và the bile ducts.BiologicsBiological organisms grown in labs. They are meant khổng lồ treat, prsự kiện, or diagnose medical conditions or diseases.Biofeedbaông xã therapyA painless neuromuscular reeducation tool in which a therapist, using special sensors lớn monitor functions that we are usually not aware of, helps to change abnormal functions lớn more normal & effective sầu functions.Biomedical modelThe Model of illness & disease in Western medical education và research. It has two assumptions: (1) reductionism – that all conditions can be linearly reduced to lớn a single cause, and (2) dualism – where illness and disease are divided either to lớn an “organic” disorder having an objectively defined cause, or a “functional” disorder, with no specific cause or pathophysiology. The biomedical Model is not sufficient lớn explain the functional GI disorders.BiopsyTissue sample.Biopsychosocial modelA Mã Sản Phẩm that proposes that illness and disease result from simultaneously interacting systems at the cellular, tissue, organismal, interpersonal, và environmental cấp độ. It incorporates the bioxúc tích aspects of the disorder with the unique psychosocial features of the individual, & helps explain the variability in symptom expression among muốn individuals having the same bioxúc tích và ngắn gọn condition.BlindingA process in a clinical study that conceals a treatment from the patient.BorborygmiAudible rumbling abdominal sounds due to gas gurgling with liquid as it passes through the intestines.BowelThe intestines.Bowel controlAbility khổng lồ delay defecation or passing of intestinal gas in a controlled manner.Bowel incontinenceInability to lớn delay defecation in a controlled manner.Bowel management or retrainingA program lớn help develop a more predictable schedule for elimination & decrease unpredictable episodes of incontinence. It may involve normalizing stool consistency, usually through dietary changes; establishing a regular time for elimination; & stimulating emptying on a regular basis.Brain-gut axisThe continuous bi-directional flow of information & feedbachồng that takes place between the gastrointestinal tract, and the brain và spinal cord (which together comprise the central nervous system).

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Điện thoại tư vấn lớn stoolFeeling the need lớn have sầu a bowel movement.Case control studyA retrospective study that compares patients who already have sầu a disease or outcome of interest (cases) with patients who do not have the disease or outcome (controls).Case seriesA report about a small group of similar patients with a disease, or outcome of interest before and after an intervention with no control group.Celiac diseaseInability to lớn digest and absorb the protein gliadin (a component of gluten). Gliadin is found in wheat, rye, barley, & oats. Celiac disease is also called celiac sprue, and gluten intolerance.CellThe basic unit of any living organism. It is a small, watery, compartment filled with chemicals và a complete copy of the organism’s genome.Central amplificationChanges that occur in the central nervous system (brain & spinal cord) that affect cell transmitters & receptors, thereby increasing the excitability of neurons and resulting in heightened perception of signals from the gastrointestinal tract.CholecystectomySurgical removal of the gallbladder.ChronicSymptoms occurring over a long period of time.Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIP)A rare disorder of gastrointestinal motility where coordinated contractions (peristalsis) in the intestinal tract become altered and inefficient.Clinical scienceThe approach aimed at understanding the diagnosis & treatment of diseases and disorders through studies involving people, usually carried out in clinical settings.Clinical significanceA conclusion that an intervention has an effect that is of practical meaning to patients and health care providers.Clinical trialAn experimental research study that tests new medical interventions on people. These interventions may include drugs, devices, or other instruments.Clostridium difficile (C. difficile)A gram-positive anaerobic bacterium. C. difficile is recognized as the major causative sầu agent of colitis (inflammation of the colon) and diarrhea that may occur following antibiotic intake.CohortA group that shares the same characteristics aước ao its members.Cohort studyAn observational study in which outcomes in a group of patients that received an intervention are compared with outcomes in a similar group (the cohort) either contemporary or historical, of patients that did not receive sầu the intervention.ColectomyRemoval of part or all of the colon.ColitisInflammation of the colon.ColonThe large intestine.Colonic inertiaDelayed colonic action. Symptoms include long delays in the passage of stool accompanied by laông xã of urgency khổng lồ move the bowelsColonoscopyColonoscopy is a fiberoptic (endoscopic) procedure in which a thin, flexible, lighted viewing tube (a colonoscope) is threaded up through the rectum for the purpose of inspecting the entire colon và rectum và, if there is an abnormality, taking a tissue sample of it (biopsy) for examination under a microscope, or removing it.ColostomyA surgically created opening of the colon khổng lồ the abdominal wall, allowing the diversion of fecal waste.CommensalsNon-pathogenic microorganisms that become part of the host’s normal flora.ComorbidityCoexistence with another disease or condition.CongenitalConditions existing at birth, but not through heredity.ContinenceAbility to lớn delay defecation or passing of intestinal gas in a controlled manner.Contrast radiologyA kiểm tra in which a contrast material (i.e., Barium) is used to coat the rectum, colon, and lower part of the small intestine so they show up on an x-ray.Control(See Randomized controlled trial) A standard of comparison which can be a conventional practice, a placebo, or no intervention.Control groupA group of patients that serves as the basis of comparison when assessing the effects of the intervention of interest that is given to the patients in the treatment group.ConstipationReduced stool frequency, or hard stools, difficulty passing stools, or painful bowel movements.CopeHow a person responds lớn a difficult or unwanted situation.CopingThoughts & behaviors that people use to lớn gain control of, tolerate, reduce, or minimize stressful events.Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)CRF is a family of peptides. They act as messengers và interact with CRF receptors on cells (CRF1 and CRF2) that receive sầu a stimulus or message, which induce a physiological response in the body. These CRF peptides & receptors are located, aý muốn other sites, both in the brain và the gut in regions linked with digestive sầu function, emotional behavior, và autonomic nervous system activity.CortisolA hormone associated with the physical effects of the găng response within the toàn thân.Crohn’s diseaseA chronic size of inflammatory bowel disease.Cross-sectional studyA study that measures the prevalence of health outcomes and/or determinants of health in a population at a point in time or over a short period of time.Cyclic vomiting syndrome (CVS)A disorder with recurrent episodes of severe nausea and vomiting interspersed with symptom free periods.CytokinesA type of protein released by cells of the immune system, which act through specific cell receptors lớn regulate immune responses.

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Declaration of HelsinkiA set of guidelines adopted in Helsinki, Finland, in 1964. The Declaration addressed the ethics of clinical retìm kiếm and recommended specific safeguards, including informed consent.DefecographyA test that uses x-rays to lớn look at the behavior of the rectum & anus during attempts to defecate.DehydrationAn excessive loss of fluids in the body.DiabetesA disease in which blood glucose (blood sugar) levels are above normal. Type 2 diabetes, also known as adult-onmix or noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), is the most common khung of diabetes.DiaphragmThe muscle wall between the chest & the abdomen.DiarrheaPassing frequent and/or loose or watery stools. Ađáng yêu diarrhea goes away in a few weeks, và becomes chronic when it lasts longer than 4 weeks.DigestionThe process by which food is converted into substances that can be absorbed & assimilated by the body.Digestive tractA group of hollow organs that forms a long, twisting tube extending from the mouth khổng lồ the anus through which food is ingested, digested, và expelled.Digital examinationPhysical exam in which the doctor inserts his or her finger.DilatationExpansion of an organ or vessel.DiscomfortAn unpleasant, but not painful, feeling.DiseaseA condition of an organic being or of one of its parts that impairs normal living functioning.DisorderA disturbance in regular or normal function. An abnormal condition.Distal esophageal spasm (DES)A rare motility (movement) disorder of the lower (distal) two-thirds of the esophagus. Occurring equally in men & women, the most common symptoms are chest pain và difficulty swallowing. Some patients may experience unusual symptoms lượt thích an unexplained cough.DistentionAn uncomfortable swelling in the intestines.DiverticulaSmall pouches in the colon.DiverticulitisOccurs when diverticula become infected or irritated.DiverticulosisA condition of having multiple diverticulum in the walls of the colon. Also called uncomplicated diverticular disease.DiverticulumSingular of diverticula.DNAAbbreviation for deoxyribonucleic acid, the molecule that contains the genetic code for all life forms (except for a few viruses).DomperidoneA pro-motility agent, domperidone, has been used in countries outside of the U.S. to treat gastroparesis or severe GI motility disorders. In 2004 the FDA determined that there are some patients with severe gastrointestinal disorders that are refractory (resistant) khổng lồ standard therapy, who may benefit from domperidone & in whom the drug’s benefits outweigh its risks. FDA encourages physicians who would like khổng lồ prescribe domperidone for their patients with severe gastrointestinal disorders that are refractory to standard therapy to lớn open an Investigational New Drug Application (IND). Find out more at this FDA web page.Double blindingA process in a clinical study that conceals the treatment from both the patient & the investigator.Dumping syndromeA collection of symptoms that occurs when food is emptied too quickly from the stomach.DuodenumThe first part of the small intestine.DysbiosisA disturbance or imbalance in a biological system, for example, changes in the types & numbers of bacteria in the gut which may lead khổng lồ developing different diseases.Dysmotility (intestinal)Abnormal contractions, of varying frequency và severity, of the muscles in the gastrointestinal tract, which may or may not be associated with symptoms. They differ from functional gastrointestinal disorders, which are defined by symptoms that may or may not have sầu dysmotility, but which are also associated with low pain thresholds (visceral hypersensitivity). When occurring in the stomach or small intestine, dysmotility can result in disorders lượt thích gastroparesis or with or without symptoms such as bloating, pain, nausea, và vomiting due lớn either disorganized contractions, or weak contractions. When occurring in the large intestine, dysmotility can result in disorders like Hirschsprung’s disease or colonic inertia that can produce symptoms of constipation, or other conditions that cause diarrhea. The abnormal motility involves changes in the contractions that either move or hold baông xã stool. Abnormalities of “dysmotility” can be measured with special motility testing.DyspepsiaA term often used to lớn describe pain or discomfort that occurs in the upper abdominal area.DysphagiaDifficulty swallowing.

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EffectivenessThe extent khổng lồ which an intervention does people more good than harm under general or routine conditions.EfficacyThe extent to lớn which an intervention improves the outcome for people under igiảm giá khuyến mãi circumstances. Testing efficacy means finding out whether something is capable of causing an effect at all.Efferent nervesNerve sầu fibers that carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system), which cause a muscle or gland khổng lồ contract, or which modify or inhibit its contraction.ElectrolytesChemicals that break down into ions (atoms) in the body’s fluids và are essential khổng lồ regulating many toàn thân functions.EmpathyUnderstanding or being in tune with another person, or their condition, from their perspective sầu or point of view.EncopresisFecal incontinence – the involuntary loss of solid liquid stool in children.EndogenousInternally produced, within an organism, tissue, or cell.EndoscopeA thin, flexible tube with a light và a lens on the over used khổng lồ look inlớn the esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, colon, or rectum.Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)(See ERCP)EndoscopyA procedure that uses an endoscope lớn diagnose or treat a condition. There are many types of endoscopy; examples include colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, gastroscopy, enteroscopy, and esophogealgastroduodenoscopy (EGD).Enteral nutritionFood provided through a tube placed in the nose, stomach, or small intestine.Enteric nervous system (ENS)Autonomic nervous system within the walls of the digestive tract. The ENS regulates digestion & the muscle contractions that eliminate solid waste.EnteritisAn irritation of the small intestine.EnteroceleThe descent of loops of small intestine into lớn the pelvis, that bulge inkhổng lồ the vagimãng cầu during straining. An enterocele may cause pain and/or obstructed defecation.EnterocolitisInflammation of the intestines.EnteroidsIntestinal tissue models used in pre-clinical retìm kiếm, ex vivo.EnteroscopyExamination of the inside of the small intestine using an endoscope.Eosinophilic gastroenteritisA rare disease characterized by food-related reactions, infiltration of certain white blood cells (eosinophils) in the GI tract, & an increase in the number of eosinophils in the blood.EpidemiologyThe study of the distribution of health-related states or events in specified populations và the application of this study lớn the control of health problems.EpisiotomyAn incision made in the skin between the vagimãng cầu và anus meant to lớn enlarge the vaginal opening during childbirth in order lớn prsự kiện tearing and to facilitate delivery of an infant.EpitheliumThe inner & outer tissue covering digestive tract organs.ERCPhường (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography)A procedure for the examination or treatment of the bile ducts (biliary tree) and pancreatic ducts that combines the use of x-rays and an endoscope. Used to lớn diagnose và manage problems of the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas such as gallstones & their complications, pancreatic and biliary cancers, pancreatitis & its complications, & pancreaticobiliary pain. The procedure carries a risk of serious complications, requires conscious sedation of the patient, and is performed by gastroenterologists or other physicians with special training.EsophagitisInflammation of the esophagus.EsophagusThe organ that connects the mouth lớn the stomach.Esophogealgastroduodenoscopy (EGD)Examination of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, & duodenum using an endoscope. (Also called Upper Endoscopy)EtiologyCause.Etioxúc tích và ngắn gọn mechanismsThe processes that cause or contribute to the cause of diseases or conditions.Evidence-basedFindings based on the use of current best evidence from scientific and medical retìm kiếm.Evidence-based medicineThe conscientious, explicit và judicious use of the current best evidence from clinical care research in making decisions about the care of individual patientsExtraintestinalOccurring outside the intestines.Ex vivoThe process where living cells, tissues, or organs are cultured outside of a living organism for treatment or analysis under controlled conditions.

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Failure khổng lồ thrive (Pediatric)A condition that occurs when a baby does not grow normally.FamilialTending to occur in more members of a family than expected by chance alone.FastingVoluntarily not eating food over periods of time.FDAFood and Drug Administration (FDA), a regulatory agency within the US Department of Health và Human Services.Fecal Incontinence (FI)Involuntary leakage of liquid or solid stool.Fecalith:A hard mass of dried feces.FecesWaste eliminated from the bowels.FistulaAn abnormal passage between two organs or between an organ and the outside of the body.5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(See Serotonin)FODMAPsA group of short-chain carbohydrates (Fermentable Oligo-saccharides, Di-saccharides, Mono-saccharides And Polyols).Food allergyAn immune system response by which the body toàn thân creates antibodies as a reaction to lớn certain food. Studies show that true food allergies are present in only 1-2% of adults.ForcepsAn instrument shaped lượt thích tongs that may be placed around an infant’s head to lớn help guide it out of the birth canal during delivery.Functional abdominal painContinuous, nearly continuous, or frequently recurrent pain localized in the abdomen but poorly related to lớn gut function.Functional bowel disorderA functional gastrointestinal disorder with symptoms attributable to the mid or lower gastrointestinal tract.Functional constipationA group of functional disorders which present as persistent difficult, infrequent, or seemingly incomplete defecation.Functional diarrheaDaily or frequently recurrent passage of loose (mushy) or watery stools without abdominal pain or intervening constipation.Functional disorderA disorder of gut-brain interaction. A functional disorder has its basis in how a bodily system works. A functional GI disorder refers khổng lồ a “disorder of functioning” where the body’s normal activities in terms of the movement of the intestines, the sensitivity of the nerves of the intestines, or the way in which the brain controls some of these functions is impaired. However, there are no structural abnormalities that can be seen by endoscopy, x-ray, or blood tests. Thus a functional GI disorder is identified by the characteristics of the symptoms(e.g., Rome Criteria) and infrequently, when needed, limited tests.Functional heartburnPersistent burning sensation in the absence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), a motility disorder, or a structural explanation.

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Ganglion(Plural: ganglia) Usually, a group of nerve cell bodies lying outside of the central nervous system (CNS); also used for one group of nerve sầu cell bodies within the CNS – the basal ganglia.GastricRelated lớn the stomach.Gastric emptying studyA chạy thử lớn measure the time it takes for the stomach khổng lồ empty.Gastric JuicesLiquids produced in the stomach khổng lồ help break down food & kill bacteria.GastritisAn inflammation of the stomach lining.GastroenteritisAn infection or irritation of the stomach & intestines.GastroenterologistA doctor who specializes in digestive sầu diseases or disorders.GastroenterologyThe field of medicine concerned with the function and disorders of the digestive system.Gastrointestinal (GI) tractThe muscular tube from the mouth khổng lồ the anus, also called the alimentary canal or digestive sầu tract.GastroparesisA disorder characterized by certain long-term symptoms together with delayed stomach emptying in the absence of any observable obstruction or blockage. Also called delayed gastric emptying.GastroschisisA birth defect where the intestines, và sometimes other organs, stick outside the body through a hole in the abdominal wall.GastroscopyExamination of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, và duodenum using an endoscope.Gastrostomy (G-tube)A method of enteral feeding in which a tube is surgically introduced through the abdominal wall.GeneThe functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent lớn offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, & most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.Gene expressionThe process by which the instructions in genes are converted lớn messenger RNA, which directs protein synthesis.GenomeThe complete genetic material of an organism.GER (gastroesophageal reflux)Also called acid reflux, a condition where the contents of the stomach regurgitates (or backs up) into the esophagus (food pipe), causing discomfort.GERD (Gastroesophageal reflux disease)A condition characterized by symptoms and/or tissue damage that results from repeated or prolonged exposure of the lining of the esophagus khổng lồ acidic contents from the stomach.Glial cellA type of cell that surrounds nerve sầu cells and holds them in place. Glial cells also insulate nerve sầu cells from each other.GlobalOverall or multiple (e.g., global symptoms).GlobusA sensation of something stuông xã or of a lump or tightness in the throat.Gluten intolerance(See Celiac disease)GutEsophagus, stomach và intestines.

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H2-blockersMedicines that reduce the amount of acid the stomach produces.Health related quality of lifeThe impact an illness has on quality of life, including the individual’s perception of his or her illness.Health-related chất lượng of life (HRQL) measuresPatient outcome measures that extover beyond traditional measures of mortality và morbidity, lớn include such dimensions as physiology, function, social activity, cognition, emotion, sleep and rest, energy & vitality, health perception, và general life satisfaction. (Some of these are also known as health status, functional status, or chất lượng of life measures.)Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)A bacterium that can damage stomach và duodenal tissue, causing ulcers.HemorrhoidsVeins around the anus or lower rectum that are swollen và inflamed.HepaticRelated to lớn the liver.HeredityThe passing of a trait from parent to lớn offspring through genetically coded informationHereditaryGenetically transmitted or transmittable from parent khổng lồ offspring.HeritabilityThe extent lớn which a trait is influenced by our genetic makeup.Hiatal herniaA small opening in the diaphragm that allows the upper part of the stomach to move sầu up into the chest.Hirschsprung’s diseaseA rare disorder present at birth (congenital) that is caused by absence of nerve cells (ganglion) in the rectum and/or colon.HomeostasisMaintenance of a relatively stable or balanced internal body toàn thân state despite environmental fluctuations. The tendency in an organism toward maintenance of physiological và psychological stability.HormonesChemical messengers in the body toàn thân, which travel in the bloodstream lớn tissue and organs affecting different processes.HPA (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axisA system within the toàn thân that responds lớn găng tay by stimulating or inhibiting the release of various hormones, in particular cortisol, inlớn the blood which then stimulates systems essential khổng lồ self-preservation.HyperalgesiaLowered threshold (higher sensitivity) lớn pain.HypersensitivityAn increased or amplified response lớn stimuli.HypervigilanceIncreased vigilance. An intensified state of paying attention to or focusing on specific things. May severely limit a person’s ability lớn focus on specific tasks or engage in reflective sầu thinking when their focus is on scanning for threatening stimuli. A person with a functional GI disorder or incontinence may be hypervigilant when their focus is on scanning for bodily sensations or indications that signal symptom onphối.

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IdiopathicA disease or disorder of unknown cause or origin.IleostomyA surgically created opening of the abdominal wall to lớn the ileum, allowing the diversion of fecal waste.IleumThe lower third of the small intestine, adjoining the colon.IllnessThe patient’s experience of feeling unwell that may include impairment of normal physiological và social function.ImagingTests that produce pictures of areas inside the toàn thân.Imperforate anusA birth defect in which the anal canal fails lớn develop, treated surgically.IncidenceDescribes the occurrence of a disease or disorder in a population. It is a rate, showing how many new cases of a disease occurred in a population (typically a susceptible population called the “at-risk population” ) during a specified interval of time (usually expressed as number of new cases per unit time per fixed number of people; e.g., number of new cases per 1,000 persons in one year).InflammationRedness, swelling, pain, and/or a feeling of heat in an area of the toàn thân. This is a protective reaction to lớn injury, disease, or irritation of the tissues.Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)Long-lasting problems that cause irritation & ulcers in the gastrointestinal tract. The most common disorders are ulcerative sầu colitis and Crohn’s disease.IngestionTaking inkhổng lồ the body by mouth.InheritedTransmitted through genes from parents khổng lồ offspring.InnervatedA structure supplied with intact nerves.Institutional Đánh Giá board (IRB)In the U.S. a group of scientists, doctors, clergy, & consumers at each health care facility that participates in a clinical trial. IRBs are designed to lớn protect study participants. They review và must approve sầu the action plan for every clinical trial. They check khổng lồ see that the trial is well designed, does not involve sầu undue risks, and includes safeguards for patients.Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC)Specialized cells found throughout the gastrointestinal tract that are required for normal gastrointestinal motility.Interstitial cystitisA long-lasting condition also known as painful bladder syndrome or frequency-urgency-dysuria syndrome. The wall of the bladder becomes inflamed or irritated, which affects the amount of urine the bladder can hold & causes scarring, stiffening, and bleeding in the bladder.InterventionAnything meant khổng lồ change the course of events for someone (e.g., drug, surgery, kiểm tra, treatment, counseling, etc.)IntestinalRelating khổng lồ or occuring in the intestines.Intestinal atresiaA complete blockage or obstruction in the intestine.Intestinal barrier functionThe ability to control uptake across the mucosa & protect from damage of harmful substances from the lumen.Intestinal mucosaThe surface lining of the intestines where the cells absorb nutrients.Intestinal permeabilityThe barrier properties of the lining of the intestines, which prevent harmful substances from passing through inkhổng lồ the body toàn thân.Intestinal pseudo-obstructionA motility disorder with symptoms lượt thích those of a bowel blockage, but with no physical evidence of blockage or obstruction. Symptoms may include cramps, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, fewer bowel movements than usual, & loose stools.Intestinal stenosisA partial obstruction that narrows the opening in the intestine.IntestinesAlso known as the gut or bowels, is the long, tube-lượt thích organ in the human body toàn thân that completes digestion or the breaking down of food. They consist of the small intestine & the large intestine.IntractableSymptoms that don’t respond khổng lồ usual treatments.InvestigationalIn U.S. clinical trials, refers to lớn a drug (including a new drug, dose, combination, or route of administration) or procedure that has undergone basic laboratory testing & received approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) lớn be tested in human subjects. A drug or procedure may be approved by the FDA for use in one disease or condition, but be considered investigational in other diseases or conditions. Also called experimental.Investigational New Drug Application (IND)A petition lớn the FDA to lớn allow testing of a new drug in clinical trials.In vitroIn the laboratory (outside the body). The opposite of in vivo (in the body).In vivoIn the body toàn thân. The opposite of in vitro (outside the body or in the laboratory).Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)A functional bowel disorder in which abdominal discomfort or pain is associated with a range of symptoms. Typically, these include intermittent abdominal pain accompanied by diarrhea, constipation, or alternating episodes of both.Ischemic colitisInflammation of the large intestine (colon) caused by decreased blood flow khổng lồ the colon. Symptoms may include: abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, blood in the stool, diarrhea, low baông xã pain.

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Jejunostomy (J-tube)A method of enteral feeding in which a tube is surgically placed in the small intestine.

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Laboratory studyResearch done in a laboratory. These studies may use chạy thử tubes or animals to find out if a drug, procedure, or treatment is likely lớn be useful. Laboratory studies take place before any testing is done in humans.Laboratory testA medical procedure that involves testing a sample of blood, urine, or other substance from the body toàn thân. Tests can help determine a diagnosis, plan treatment, kiểm tra khổng lồ see if treatment is working, or monitor the disease over time.LactoseA sugar found commonly in milk & dairy products.Lactose intoleranceThe inability to digest or absorb lactose.LaparoscopyThe insertion of a thin, lighted tube (called a laparoscope) through the abdominal wall to inspect the inside of the abdomen và remove tissue samples.Large intestineThe long, tube-like organ that is connected khổng lồ the small intestine at one over và the anus at the other. The large intestine has four parts: cecum, colon, rectum, và anal canal. Partly digested food moves through the cecum inkhổng lồ the colon, where water and some nutrients và electrolytes are removed. The remaining material, solid waste called stool, moves through the colon, is stored in the rectum, và leaves the body toàn thân through the anal canal và anus.LaxativeA compound that increases fecal water content.Limbic systemA network of brain regions involved in the regulation of the function of internal organs, emotions, & the maintenance of homeostasis.LumenThe cavity of a tubular organ, such as the intestines.LymphocyteA type of trắng blood cell. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune system, including the production of antibodies & other substances that fight infection và diseases.

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Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)A chạy thử that uses a magnet và radio waves to generate signals from inside the toàn thân used to lớn construct images of internal structures.MalabsorptionDifficulty absorbing nutrients from foodMaldaptive sầu responseAn unhelpful or detrimental response.MalnutritionThe condition that occurs when the body does not get enough nutrients.ManometryA kiểm tra that measures pressure or contractions in the intestinal tract.Mast cellA type of immune system cell present in blood and tissue.Mast cell degranulationThe release from within the cell of granules, or small sacs, containing chemicals that can digest microorganisms & activate other cells khổng lồ fight infection.MediatorsSubstances within the body toàn thân, such as hormones, that can transmit messages khổng lồ nerve or muscle tissue to stimulate a response.Meta-analysesA method of summarizing previous retìm kiếm by reviewing and combining results from multiple studies.MetabolismThe biochemical process the body uses lớn make energy from what we eat and drink.MetabolitesSubstances produced by cells as they break down larger molecules & produce energy.Microbial metabolitesSubstances produced by our gut microbes by fermenting food components that the human intestine cannot process or absorb.MicrobiomeA collection of different microbes và their functions or genes found in an environmental habitat. Different parts of the body have different microbiomes, for example, the skin microbiome is different khổng lồ the gut microbiome, but they are all part of the human microbiome.MicrobiotaThe collective sầu community of microorganisms, or microbes, such has bacteria or viruses, that live sầu on or within different parts of our bodies, like the skin, mouth, & the gut.MigrationThe movement of cells, etc. from one position khổng lồ another.MitochondriaStructures within cells that convert the energy from food into a size that cells can use.Mitochondrial DNADNA, or genetic material, within mitochondria.MorbidityA disease or the incidence of disease within a population. Morbidity also refers to lớn adverse effects caused by a treatment.MotilitySpontaneous movement. A term used to lớn describe the motor activity of smooth muscles in the gastrointestinal (GI) tractMRIMagnetic resonance imaging.MucosaA mucous membrane that lines toàn thân passageways and cavities such as the esophagus, stomach, and intestines.MyogenicOriginating in muscle tissue.

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Natural HistoryA description of what happens to a medical condition over time (e.g., improves, stays the same, worsens) in the absence of treatment.Nasograstro tube (NG-tube)A method of enteral feeding in which a tube is placed through a nasal passageway into lớn the stomach.Nerve(s)Cells in the human body that are the building blocks of the nervous system (the system that records và transmits information chemically & electrically within a person). Nerve sầu cells, or neurons, are made up of a nerve cell toàn thân và various extensions from the cell body toàn thân that receive sầu và transmit impulses from and to other nerves and muscles.NeuralHaving to lớn vì with nerves or the nervous system, including the brain và the spinal cord.NeuronsNerve sầu cells.NeuroendocrinologyThe science of how hormones và glands interact with the nervous system.NeurologicalHaving to lớn vày with nerves or the nervous system.Neuronoal intestinal dysplasia (NID)A variety of conditions in which nerve sầu cells (ganglion) are present in the colon but may be abnormal in their position, number, maturity, or appearance.NeuropeptideA member of a class of protein-lượt thích molecules made in the brain used by neurons lớn communicate with each other.NeurotransmitterA chemical in the nervous system that helps transmit messages.NIDDK or National Institute of Diabetes & Digestive sầu and Kidney DiseasesOne of the 27 NIH Institutes & Centers, the NIDDK conducts & supports basic and applied research và provides leadership for a national program in diabetes, endocrinology, and metabolic diseases; digestive sầu diseases and nutrition; and kidney, urongắn gọn xúc tích, & hematoxúc tích diseases. Access the NIDDK web site at or National Institutes of HealthThe focal point of biomedical research in the United States. NIH conducts retìm kiếm in its own laboratories; supports the research of non-Federal scientists in universities, medical schools, hospitals, and research institutions throughout the country and abroad; helps in the training of research investigators; and fosters communication of medical information. Access the NIH web site at a clinical trial or other experiment in which the researchers know what treatments are being given khổng lồ each study subject or experimental group. If human subjects are involved, they know what treatments they are receiving.Noxious stimulusStimulus that causes or has the potential to lớn cause pain.NutrientA chemical compound (such as protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, or minerals) that trang điểm foods.NutritionThe taking in and use of food & other nourishing material by the body toàn thân.

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Off-labelThe practice whereby doctors may prescribe a medicine they feel is appropriate for a treatment in a manner not specifically approved by the FDA.Ogilvie’s syndromeSee Pseudo-obstruction.xuất hiện label studyA retìm kiếm study in which both the health providers and the patients are aware of the drug or treatment being given, & no placebo is used.Oral feedingTaking in nutrition through the mouth.Oral rehydrationDrinking a solution of water, salts, & sugars to lớn maintain fluids.

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P. valueThe p (probability) value is a calculation used in studies lớn determine if the results are caused by chance or not. The lower the p-value, the more likely it is that the difference between groups was caused by treatment. A p value less than 0.05 is statistically significant & indicates that the result is not due khổng lồ chance.Pain thresholdThe point at which a person becomes aware of pain.PalpationExamination by pressing on the surface of the toàn thân to feel the organs or tissues underneath.Parenteral nutritionThe slow infusion of a solution of nutrients inkhổng lồ a vein through a catheter, which is surgically implanted. This may be partial, to lớn supplement food và nutrient intake, or total (TPN, total parenteral nutrition), providing the sole source of energy and nutrient intake for the patient.PathogenesisThe origin và development of a disease or disorder.PathogensDisease causing microorganisms.PathologicalDisease related.PathologyThe study of the fundamental nature, causes, & development of abnormal conditions & the structural và functional changes that result.Pathophysioxúc tích và ngắn gọn mechanismsProcesses involved with a particular function.PathophysiologyChanges or alterations in function that accompany a particular syndrome or disease, generally as distinguished from structural defects.PelvicHaving to lớn vị with the pelvis (the lower part of the abdomen located between the hip bones).Pelvic floorA group of muscles that tư vấn the pelvic organs, participate in defecation, & help maintain continence.Pelvic floor dyssynergiaA problem with the way certain nerves and muscles function in the pelvic floor.Peptic ulcerA sore in the lining of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum, usually caused by the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). An ulcer in the stomach is a gastric ulcer; an ulcer in the duodenum is a duodenal ulcer.PerineumThe area of the toàn thân between the anus & the vulva in females, and between the anus và the scrotum in males.PeristalsisSynchronized or coordinated contraction of the muscles that propel food nội dung through the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to lớn facilitate normal digestion và the absorption of nutrients. Peristalsis is dependent upon the coordination between the muscles, nerves, and hormones in the digestive tract.PharmacogenomicsThe study of how genes affect a person’s response to drugs.PharmacokineticsHow the body handles a drug, including how it is absorbed, circulated, transformed, & eliminated.PhysiologyThe study of how the body toàn thân functions at the levels of organs, cells, and molecules.Pilot studyThe initial study examining a new method or treatment.PlaceboA placebo is an effect, not merely a thing. It is more or less a component of all healing yet is poorly understood or studied. In clinical trials a placebo pill, device, or procedure acts as a control khổng lồ ensure that the effect seen with the treatment is specific, not only the result of the placebo effect or the natural evolution of an illness that accompany every therapeutic encounter. (Thompson WG. What are placebos, 2002; Fact Sheet No. 172)PostprandialAfter meals.PrebioticsNondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of microbes already resident in the gut microbiota.PrecursorA substance, cell or component from which another is formed.PrevalenceThe proportion of people in the entire population who are found khổng lồ be with a disease or disorder at a certain point in time (sometimes called a “cross section”), without regard to lớn when they first got the disease.Primary careFirst liên hệ medical care to lớn patients.Primary care physicianA doctor who manages a person’s health care over time. A primary care doctor is able to give sầu a wide range of care, including prevention và treatment, và can refer a patient lớn a speciadanh mục.Primary lactase deficiencyWhen a person is born with the inability lớn digest lactose, a sugar found in milk and milk products. Lactose can’t be digested because there is not enough of an enzyme, called lactase, in the body toàn thân. Consuming milk & dairy products causes diarrhea, bloating, gas, và discomfort. This deficiency can also develop over time, as the amount of lactase in the body toàn thân decreases with age.ProbioticsMicrobial cell preparations or components of microbial cells that have a beneficial effect on the health và well being of the host. The World Health Organization defines probiotics as live microorganisms that can provide benefits lớn human health when administered in adequate amounts.ProceedingsA collection of current retìm kiếm reports, usually presented as brief abstracts, from a scientific meeting.Progressive muscle relaxationVoluntary relaxation through systematic tensing & relaxing of different muscle groups.ProkineticDrugs that enhance propulsion of contents through the gut.Prospective sầu studyA study that utilizes carefully defined protocols to lớn determine an outcome that is unknown beforehand.ProteaseA protein that digests other proteins.ProteinA large complex molecule made up of one or more chains of amino acids. Proteins perkhung a wide variety of activities in the cell.ProtocolAn action plan for a clinical trial. The plan states what the study will bởi vì, how, & why. It explains how many people will be in it, who is eligible khổng lồ participate, what study agents or other interventions they will be given, what tests they will receive sầu and how often, và what information will be gathered.Proton pump inhibitor (PPI)A drug that limits acid secretion in the stomach.Pseudo-obstruction (intestinal)A motility disorder with symptoms lượt thích those of a bowel blockage, but with no physical evidence of blockage or obstruction. Symptoms may include cramps, stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, bloating, fewer bowel movements than usual, and loose stools. May be chronic or adễ thương (Ogilvie’s syndrome).

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Quality of lifePerception of ability to lớn meet daily needs, physical activities, well-being.

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Radiation proctitisBleeding, mucous and bloody discharge, spasm of the rectal wall, urgency, and incontinence due radiation-induced damage lớn the rectum. Late symptoms result from scarring of the rectal & anal muscles with loss of some of the small blood vessels. The rectum becomes stiff & noncompliant (nonstretchable) and abnormal blood vessels may develop.Random allocationA method where all participants in a study have sầu the same chance of being assigned lớn a study group, rather than allocation being assigned by the investigators.Randomized controlled trialA study in which people are allocated at random to receive one of several clinical interventions. One intervention is regarded as a standard of comparison or control.ReceptorA structure in each cell that selectively receives và binds a specific substance, such as a neurotransmitter.RectumThe lower over of the large intestine, leading to lớn the anus.RefractoryResistant khổng lồ treatment.Resection, intestinalThe surgical removal of a diseased portion of the intestines.Retrospective studyA study in which known outcomes are examined in hindsight using existing records. A retrospective study is usually less reliable than a prospective study.ReuptakeA process in which chemical neurotransmitters, after transmitting their message, are taken up again by nerve endings, broken down, & inactivated.RNAAbbreviation for ribonucleic acid, the molecule that carries out DNA’s instructions for making proteins.Rome CriteriaLists of symptoms & criteria generally agreed upon by experts to diagnosis a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

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SatietyFeeling of fullness.Scientific knowledgeThe current mix of peer-evaluated consensus models about how natural phenomena work, which often differ between groups of researchers at the retìm kiếm frontier.Scientific progressThe cumulative sầu growth of a system of knowledge over time, in which useful features are retained and nonuseful features are abandoned, based on the rejection or confirmation of testable knowledge.ScintigraphyAn imaging method in which a mild dose of a radioactive sầu substance is swallowed to show how material moves through the GI tract.Sensitivity (diagnostic)The ability of a kiểm tra khổng lồ correctly identify a disease or condition (positive kiểm tra result) when it is present.SensitizationEnhancement of a response by an organism that is produced by delivering a strong, generally noxious, stimulus. A neuron becomes more excitable or responsive; it may respond more intensely lớn naturally occurring stimuli, either peripherally (in the viscera) or centrally (in the brain).Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, or 5-HT)A chemical neurotransmitter (a chemical that acts on the nervous system khổng lồ help transmit messages along the nervous system). It is found in the intestinal wall và the central nervous system. More than 90% of the serotonin in the body resides in the gut.Short bowel syndrome (short gut)A condition in which nutrients are not properly absorbed because a large part of the small intestine is missing or not functioning properly.Sigmoid colonThe S-shaped section of the colon that connects khổng lồ the rectum.SigmoidoscopyExamination of the inside of the sigmoid colon và rectum using an endoscope — a thin, lighted tube (sigmoidoscope). Samples of tissue or cells may be collected for examination under a microscope. Also called proctosigmoidoscopy.Significant or statistically significantA statistical term indicating that the results of a study are stronger than would be expected from chance alone.Skin testA thử nghiệm for an immune response khổng lồ a compound by placing it on or under the skin.Small intestineThe part of the digestive tract that is located between the stomach và the large intestine.SoilingStaining or soiling undergarments with stool.SomaticPertaining to the physical body toàn thân.SomatizationThe body’s propensity lớn accentuate certain pain; physical symptoms & no recognizable physical abnormality.Specificity (diagnostic)The ability of a kiểm tra to lớn correctly classify an individual as not having a disease or condition (negative sầu thử nghiệm result) when it is absent.SphincterRing of muscle that opens và closes.Sphincter of OddiA muscle at that juncture of the bile và pancreatic ducts and the small intestine. It functions by opening and closing these ducts.Sphincter of Oddi DysfunctionAn abnormality of the contractions of the sphincter of Oddi, which may be seen with a biliary and/or pancreatic type of pain in the upper right and middle parts of the abdomen (below the breastbone). It most commonly occurs in middle-aged women who have had their gallbladder removed. Treatment may involve surgery or medicines aimed at decreasing resistance to lớn the flow of bile or pancreatic juice caused by the sphincter dysfunction.Spinal cordA column of nerve tissue that runs from the base of the skull down the baông chồng. It is surrounded by three protective membranes, & is enclosed within the vertebrae (bachồng bones). The spinal cord and the brain make up the central nervous system, & spinal cord nerves carry most messages between the brain và the rest of the body toàn thân.Squamous cellA flat cell that looks like a fish scale under a microscope. Squamous cells cover internal & external surfaces of the toàn thân.StressThe neurophysiological và subjective response to stimuli. In contrast khổng lồ the comtháng interpretation of the term “stress” as a psychological phenomenon, it should be understood as any real or perceived perturbation of an organism’s homeostasis, or state of harmony or balance. Stress may disrupt the function of nerve and even immune cells in the GI tract và in the brain. The central căng thẳng system involves the release of chemical căng thẳng mediators in the brain, which in turn orchestrate an integrated autonomic, behavioral, neuroendocrine, và pain modulatory response. This biological response in turn will alter the way the brain và the viscera (internal organs such as the gut/intestines) interact, and this altered brain-gut interaction can result in worsening of symptoms in functional GI disorders. For example, áp lực can increase GI symptoms by changing how the brain controls unwanted and painful sensation.StressorInternal or external factors or stimuli that produce bao tay. They can be physical, biological, environmental, or psychological; each can activate central căng thẳng circuits in an individual. For example, worry about the untimely & unpredictable onsets of uncontrollable abdominal pain or an uncontrollable bowel movement qualify as stressors sufficient khổng lồ activate the central bức xúc system.StrictureAbnormal narrowing of a body toàn thân opening.SynapseThe point between two nerve cells (neurons), across which chemical neurotransmitters carry messages.SyndromeA set of symptoms or conditions that occur together & suggest the presence of a certain disease or an increased chance of developing the disease.SystemicAffecting the entire toàn thân.

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Tertiary careMedical care in a highly specialized center.Tolerance (drug)Decreased effect of a drug due lớn repeated exposure.Tortuous colonA colon which is longer than normal or which has additional twists & turns.Transit time (intestinal)The time it takes for food to lớn move through the intestines.Translational scienceConversion of basic science discoveries inlớn the practical applications that benefit people.

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Ulcerative colitisA khung of inflammatory bowel disease that causes ulcers and inflammation in the inner lining of the colon và rectum.UltrasoundAn imaging method in which high-frequency sound waves are used to lớn outline a part of the body.Upper endoscopyExamination of the inside of the esophagus, stomach, & duodenum using an endoscope.Upper GI seriesX-rays of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum.UrgencyHaving very little time between feeling the urge khổng lồ have sầu a bowel movementvà the need to pass stool.

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Vagus nerveA nerve that extends from the brain lớn the abdomen, important in regulating functions of the viscera. Signals on the vagus nerve travel from the brain lớn the gut và from the gut to lớn the brain.ValidityThe extent to which a measure accurately reflects the concept that it is intended khổng lồ measure.Valsalva maneuverVoluntary increasing pressure in the abdominal cavity with the diaphragm and abdominal muscles to lớn bear down on the rectum to facilitate defecation.VilliTiny finger-like projections on the surface of the small intestine that help absorb nutrients.VisceraInternal organs such as the gut/intestines or bladder.VisceralRelating to the internal organs, such as the gut/intestines or bladder.Visceral hypersensitivity (intestinal)Enhanced perception, or enhanced responsiveness within the gut — even lớn normal events.

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Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES)A rare disorder that causes tumors in the pancreas & duodenum. The tumors secrete a hooc môn called gastrin that causes the stomach to produce too much acid, which in turn causes stomach and duodenal ulcers (peptic ulcers).

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Other References:

British Journal of Medicine, Randomized Controlled TrialsNational Digestive sầu Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NIDDK), Digestive sầu Diseases Dictionary National Institutes of Health, National Human Genome Research InstituteNational Institutes of Health, National Womens Health Information CenterNational Library of Medicine, National Information Center on Health Services Research và Health Care Technology (NICHSR), GlossaryRome III, The Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders
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