Populism is on the rise - especially aước ao Europe's right, và in the US, where it helped crown Mr Trump.Bạn sẽ xem: Populism là gì
Italy's popucác mục Five sầu Star Movement and anti-immigrant League parties have emerged as two major players in the lachạy thử elections - the most recent of several such results in Europe.
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In political science, populism is the idea that society is separated inkhổng lồ two groups at odds with one another - "the pure people" & "the corrupt elite", according to lớn Cas Mudde, author of Populism: A Very Short Introduction.
The term is often used as a kind of shorthvà political insult. Britain's Labour leader, Jeremy Corbyn, has been accused of populism over his party's biểu ngữ "for the many, not the few" - but that's not quite the same thing.
The word "is generally misused, especially in a European context," according lớn Benjamin Moffitt, author of The Global Rise of Populism.
The true popudanh mục leader claims lớn represent the unified "will of the people". He stands in opposition to an enemy, often embodied by the current system - aiming lớn "drain the swamp" or tackle the "liberal elite".
"It generally attaches itself khổng lồ the right in a European context… but that's not an iron rule," Dr Moffitt said.Popudanh mục parties can be anywhere on the political spectrum. In Latin America, there was Venezuela's late President Chávez. In Spain, there is the Podemos tiệc ngọt, & in Greece the label has also been applied to lớn Syriza. All these are on the left.
But "most successful populists today are on the right, particularly the radical right," Prof Mudde said.
Politicians "like Marine Le Pen in France, Viktor Orcung cấp in Hungary, và Donald Trump in the US, combine populism with nativism & authoritarianism," he added.
image captionIn Italy, supporters of the popudanh mục Five Star movement brandish letters spelling out their government ambitions
Commentators - from Time magazine to the President of the European Commission - have sầu been warning about the rise of right-wing populism for years.
"Political scientists have sầu been catching on to lớn this for the last 25-30 years," Dr Moffitt says - but admits "there's been an acceleration."
Experts point to lớn both societal changes like multiculturalism and globalism, và more concrete crises as behind the rise of popudanh mục parties in Europe.
The swell in tư vấn seemed to lớn happen "from 2008 - and particularly in 2011, when the banking crisis turned inlớn a sovereign debt crisis", he said.
It was a rare occasion when an elite class - the wealthy bankers - could be identified as more or less directly responsible for a crisis which affected the majority of society.
In his book The Global Rise of Populism, Dr Moffitt argues that there are other traits associated with the typical popumenu leader.
One is "bad manners", or behaving in a way that's not typical of politicians - a tactic employed by President Trump & the Philippines' President Duterte.The other, he says, is "perpetuating a state of crisis" - & always seeming to lớn be on the offensive sầu.
"A popudanh mục leader who gets into power is 'forced' to be in a permanent campaign khổng lồ convince his people that he is not establishment - và never will be," according to Prof Nadia Urbinati from Columbia University.
She argues that populist nội dung is "made of negatives" - whether it is anti-politics, anti-intellectualism, or anti-elite. Here lies one of the populism's strengths - it is versatile.
Another common thread among popumenu leaders is they tend khổng lồ dislượt thích the "complicated democratic systems" of modern government - preferring direct democracy lượt thích referendums instead, according to lớn Prof Bull.
That also ties in to its link to authoritarianism, he argues - a lachồng of trust in the established system gives rise lớn "strongman" leaders.
"Ultimately, the leader makes the decision in a way that just isn't possible in traditional democracies," he says.
That sentiment is perhaps best embodied by the late left-wing Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez, who once said: "I am not an individual - I am the people".
Such thinking "can lead to lớn people thinking they're infallible," Dr Moffitt said. "It restructures the political space in a new và scary way".
"In order lớn garner tư vấn, they're quicker than the establishment buổi tiệc nhỏ khổng lồ make offers, or to promise to change things… that on closer inspection may not turn out to be feasible," he said.