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Bạn đang xem: Valuation là gìWhen Wall Street finally realized its dot-com valuations were off by 90% to lớn 100%, the stock market damage was spectacular.
More troubling was the finding that the source of valuation for cost estimates was often unclear or not reported.
Uninformed và inefficient trade of environmental unique for capital inflows may be due lớn an incorrect valuation of environmental damages.
The discussion và valuation of pension promises is presented intuitively, making it easy to follow and to understvà the economics behind pension funding and accounting.
Table 1 indicates the valuation for hourly costs (social security contributions included), & tariffs for personnel involved in either health care or coordination.
Mediation ahy vọng truyền thông media means recognition & valuation of independent, if marginalized, indistinct, and indecipherable voices.
The valuation of time otherwise spent on leisure activities or unpaid work is more difficult (9;20).
Contingent valuation surveys can also be used to estimate the willingness of consumers khổng lồ pay for public broadcasting.
Now monetary exchange is challenged by costly deterministic matching, & both valuation of money và relative sầu extent of the competing trade mechanisms are determined endogenously.
In the absence of markets và money as a commensurable unit of valuation, economic actors would be unable to lớn make rational decisions concerning productive alternatives.
We shall return to the problem of extending a valuation lớn a measure, but only to lớn the generated algebra, not the generated -algebra.
These marginal contributions should be determined by including in the valuation process an understanding of the scientific properties of the environmental service.
The standard approaches to economic evaluation equate "societal valuation" with health gain measured in (equally weighted) quality-adjusted life-years.